Ppt On Herbal Plants

Herbal plants ppt 1. Herbal plants play an important role in preventing and treating of human diseases. Antisecretory (antidiarrheal) activity of Indian medicinal plants against Escherchia coli enterotoxin-induced secretion in rabbit and guinea pig ileal loop models. The result is many valuable medicinal herbs are becoming rare and precious information is lost. , of family Gnetaceae or Ephedraceae; Eng. Medicinal Plants Cultivation Detailed Project Report, Project Reports, Feasibility Study Report and Business Plan Include the Medicinal Plants property, Standards and Specifications Requirement for Medicinal Plants according to the buyers, Sellers and Country Specific, Medicinal Plants Use and Application area in the Industry. They will learn what a plant needs in order to grow, and how to test the effects of food, light and warmth on plant growth. Platelet defects - Thrombocytopenic purpura. Medicinal Plants: Tulsi is the queen of medicinal plants Photo Credit: iStock. India with its biggest repository of medicinal plants in the world may. Medicinal plants have been playing an essential role in the development of human culture. 1000 gm N, 500 gm P 2 O 2 and 750 gm K 2O per plant/year. 4%, the US is the largest importer of medicinal herbs value added. Waxes embedded in the cuticle of the plant are cuticular waxes. 3 Million till 2023, Global Herbal Medicine Market by Category, by Type of Medicinal Plants, by Form, by Source and by Region | Herbal Medicine Industry. , leaves, stems, and roots) are presented to enable selection of the harvesting time on the basis of the part of the plant that provides the opti-. Antimicrobial Activity of Four Medicinal Plants Used by Sudanese Traditional Medicine Abd alfatah Abd alla* 1, Christina Y. The plants were screened for the presence of phytochemicals and, their effect on 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) was used to determine their free radical scavenging activity. Yellowing and wilting of lower leaves, especially in tomato and potato plants. Edible Wild Plants: An Introduction to Familiar North American Species (North American Nature Guides) by James Kavanagh and Raymond Leung is a guide to berries, nuts, leaves and plants found in North America. axillare, M. • Rimth: The Bedouin used rimth roots for firewood. Lab demonstrations will be held in the New Use. Prepare an area specific for your medicinal plants. CLASSIFICATION Different systems of classification for vegetable drugs Medicinal drugs can be arranged under the following headings 1- Alphabetical Either use Latin or Vernacular name This arrangement is employed only for dictionaries Gives no indication about inter-relationship 2- Taxonomic Drugs are arranged according to plants from which they are obtained Classes, orders, families, genera. Herbs contain numerous phytochemicals. Medicinal plants naturally synthesize and accumulate some secondary metabolites, like alkaloids, sterols, terpenes, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, cyanogeniCS, tannins, resins. Today, plants are being used to treat a number of health concerns and conditions, including allergies, arthritis, migraines, fatigue, skin infections, wounds, burns, gastrointestinal issues and. The result is many valuable medicinal herbs are becoming rare and precious information is lost. He is really a legend in d field of medicinal palnts which has been sufficiently reflected. #N#Climbers in Kerala. On the one hand, they provide us with the oxygen we need by means of photosynthesis necessary for us to breathe. However, it can be stated, that at least every fourth plant is in use, a calculation based upon the estimated total number of 300-350,000 flowering plants. About 3,500 species of both higher and lower plant groups are of medicinal values. Marijuana refers to the dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica plant. Datura is used as a poison because of the presence of alkaloids such as scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and atropine. The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. Just pick up a few of your favorite herbs, discard the plastic or peat pot the herb was sold in, place it in the container and fill up the reservoir. Background Ppt Business Ppt Templates Herbal Plants Herbalism Presentation Projects To Try Backgrounds Herbs Concept. Herbal medicine is usually inclusive of but not restricted to the use of plants and herbs as a means to treat ailments and illnesses. Antimicrobial Activity of Four Medicinal Plants Used by Sudanese Traditional Medicine Abd alfatah Abd alla* 1, Christina Y. Many of them are vines whose stems twine round trees and branches. Ethnobotany is the study of how people of a particular culture and region make use of indigenous (native) plants. As a result, the herbal industry has flourished and now cities are filled with tea boutiques or herbal supplements for beauty or health. In this session let us discuss some of List of Medicinal Plants and their uses. By Elmore, F. In the third in the series of blogs on the folklore of Scotland's wildlife, Director of Training, Myles Farnbank explores the traditional uses of three common and well-known Scottish native plants. Title: Medicinal plants and plant extracts (scanned PDF, 2 MB) Author: Anna Lewington Subject: TRAFFIC International publication Created Date: 1/17/2011 1:34:06 PM. Physical evidence goes back 60,000 years to the burial site of a Neanderthal man who was buried with 8 species of plants. Problematic urination. What is meant by Herbal Plants? Herbal plants are plants that grow herbs. The National Medicinal Plants Board has been established by Government of India to coordinate with all matters relating to Medicinal Plants and Support Policies and Programs for growth of trade, export, conservation and cultivation. 11 MB, 345 views) This discussion thread is closed. Macrophytes are primary producers and are the basis of th. Introduction • Medicinal plants (MPs) as a group comprises approximately 8, 000 species and account for around 50% of all the higher flowering plant species of India. / Kg ) Medicinal Use Amla ( T )After 4th year Emblica officinalis Fam - euphorbiaceac Fruit Rs 15 - 45/kg Vitamin - C, Cough. Lemon balm is a great medicinal herb to grow yourself because it is more effective when used fresh or freshly dried. N Name of the plant Family Part used for pharmacognostic study References. A bacterial disease named for the scorched appearance of infected plant leaves. It is a mixture of acaci­ nin-A. ) or abuse may lead to undesirable consequences. As of 2017, about 46 percent of the global herbal medicine market was attributed to Western herbalism. Medicinal plants naturally synthesize and accumulate some secondary metabolites, like alkaloids, sterols, terpenes, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, cyanogeniCS, tannins, resins. From enhancing your mood to treating indigestion, mint can do it all. The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. , but, for sure there was a previous use of these plants in Asia, mainly in China, where it is assumed that they were already used in 5000 A. Key Words : Cosmetic, Hair, Medicinal plants, Skin. Effective treatment of a disease entails the development of new pharmaceuticals or some potential source of novel drugs. For every person who believes that herbs and plants can slow or even kill cancer cells, there is another who will only believe in the merits. Download Free herbal PowerPoint Templates and Themes. This is by no means a comprehensive list of all of the plants, names of chemicals, or uses for those chemicals, but it should serve as a useful starting point for further research. You must have heard about tea green a lot, especially for treatment against loss of hair and. • Leaves, fruits, flowers or nuts must be mature before harvesting. The plants in a Genus are often easily recognisable as belonging to the same group. 's natural areas by providing a forum for the exchange of scientific, educational and technical information. Medicinal plants/herbal drugs should be harvested when they are at the best possible quality for the proposed use. In addition, it helps in treating lungs and kidneys. peperita)05/19/16 2. Multifunctional decontamination plant/machine for Sterilization and pasteurization of spices, herbs and grains. This Rongoā Māori (Medicinal plants) set contains a range of shrubs, plants and trees that are important in traditional Māori medicine. This electronic database of plants used in Ayurveda medicine is the first of its kind, a pioneering effort. This course focuses on current and emerging breeding and cultivation practices used to produce high-value medicinal plants and herbs. 25+ Million Readerbase. , besides E. Leaves of Tulsi are widely used in the preparation of Ayurvedic medicines. #N#Climbers in Kerala. Paths between the beds are often paved with stone or brick, adding even more four-season structure to the. farming, growing medicinal herbs and spices; wildcrafting, medicine-making for home businesses (body care products, teas, tinctures), or as a foundation for eventual further training in a healing art that incorporates herbal medicine. The stem, fruit, flower of the Banana plant make wholesome food and have many medicinal. Make an herbal infusion by pouring boiling water over the herbs, cover, and allow them to steep for at least 4 hours. Agriculture. Fowler & Co. Some herbs are used to make medicines. The types are: 1. The use of medicinal plants is old as the existence of mankind. The relationships between plant groups are still being worked out, and the names given to them vary considerably. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was. The "petals" (technically known as ray florets) are edible and the whole flower is an important medicinal herb for addressing skin conditions. The term "medicinal plant" include various types of plants used in herbalism ("herbology" or "herbal medicine"). Each medicinal plant species is provided with its scientific name, local name, chromosome number , plant parts (such as leaf, root, stem, fruit, latex, whole plant, seed, inflorescence and bark) mostly used and uses. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF BANGLADESH. This medicinal herb has a long history as part of the Ayervedic tradition, according to Drugs. by George Wooten, ©1998-2008. Several secondary metabolites ( 200,000) from plants have been explored11. 25+ Million Readerbase. If birds evolved from dinosaurs, would that make them reptiles too? Answer >> Be Part of Ask A Biologist. medicinal plants. Added to bath water. 17 - The Conservation of Medicinal Plants Used in Primary Health Care in Thailand pp 253-258 By Pricha Desawadi , Formerly Deputy Director-General, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Bangkok, Thailand. The juice of the datura plant is applied over the scalp to treat hair fall, hair loss, and dandruff. While chives are quite attractive in bloom, flowering can cause the foliage to develop an off-flavor. lemon balm. Search Funded PhD Projects, Programs & Scholarships in medicinal plants. Applied to the skin as gels, lotions, or creams. It comes for genus Cassia but the same species also grouped in the genus of genus Senna with scientific name Senna alata but they are actually the same flowering plant. uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for cure of skin and hair problems and also on herbal cosmetics. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. about 75% by mass of dry plant materials. third country which, as regards the plant manufacturing the exported active substance, confirms that the standards of good manufacturing practice and control of the plant are equivalent to those in the Union. Medicinal and aromatic plants have been used in the country for a long time for their medicinal properties. Medicinal plant-based metabolomics study is of prime importance, because plants synthesize a vast number of primary and secondary metabolites and some of them have potential therapeutic importance. Field production in Texas involves ten to twenty full time herb growers with 10 to 20 acres of herbs. 88% to reach USD 1,29,689. A Guide to Common Medicinal Herbs. Pete's PowerPoint Station is your destination for free PowerPoint presentations for kids and teachers about All Kinds of Plants, and so much more. Keywords: Herbal cosmetics, Ayurvedic medicine, Essential oils, Synthetic chemicals. Introduction to the Medicinal Chemistry of Herbs. Plant materials were obtained from mature individuals in flower or fruit, and collected and processed according to standard practices. Overharvesting has placed many medicinal species at risk of extinction. Treatment using herbs developed different parts of world in different names. Herbal formulation for the treatment of Skin diseases; Ethnobotanical Information; Medicinal Plants in Sindh; Plants and Skin Infections; Photo Gallery. Shrubs are taller than the herbs and have a hard woody stem with branches. Although medicinal plants are generally safe when used appropriately according to the traditional methods, some are inherently toxic. By my count, this is the third time I have given a talk on Business to a group like this. The importance of medicinal plants becomes more patent at the present time in developing countries. Downloads Free Images : field, meadow, flower, purple, herb, color, flora, wildflower, background, the scenery, properties, flowering plant, ppt backgrounds, land. We advocate a herb for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Salvia miltiorrhiza, as a prime model system to study how microbes may interact with medicinal plants to modify phytochemical production. MEDICINAL PLANTS, TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND DRUG DISCOVERY Gordon Cragg, Ph. More than 700 formulas with plants are known, and the most interesting printed document is the Papyrus of Ebers, from 1700 A. and Aalbersberg, William G. plant and herbal formulations (5). Adaptation: Any alteration in the structure or function of an organism or any of its part that results from natural selection and by which the organism becomes better fitted to. 4Triterpenes and Steroids from the Medicinal Plants of Africa Louis Pergaud Sandjoa and Victor Kueteb aDepartment of Organic Chemistry, University of Yaounde ´1, Yaounde, Cameroon, bDepartment of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon 4. identified beneficial plants with helpful effects from those that were inactive or toxic, and also which processing methods or mixtures had to be used to meet steady and ideal results. ) Cancer Therapies Today Cell division Cell cycle Mitosis Different phases of. They are sorted by their scientific names. The plant is the source of the drug Vasaka, particularly in the treatment of Bronchitis. plz like and subscribe!!!!. There are three separate listing of medicinal plants: a Tagalog list, an English list for those plants with English designations, and a Chinese list, for the medicinal plants with Chinese names. We call it Aruvatham Pachai in Tamil and Sudabu in Hindi. Monitor the following Powerpoint presentation. Medicinal plants play a great role in:-Food supplements alongside. Hauser supplies companies such as Rexall with herbal extracts. Herbal Supplements and Health The physical and mental value of dietary herbal supplements. The sudden decrease in temperature caused the formation of the ice crystals in intercellular spaces of the plant. Much of that knowledge is still used as part of the Ayurveda medical system 2250 BCE Egypt and Babylon were trading medicinal plants 900 BCE - Archaeological records demonstrate the use of medicinal and psychoactive plants in the New World 330 BCE - One of the Theophrastuss. Even in a ancient cultures ethnic, ancestral or tribal people collect information related to herbal plant and developed which is defined herbal phrmacopeais [2, 6]. Little Book of Herbs. Example: - Tulsi leaves are used for cough and Cold, Turmeric are considered anti-inflammatory, Aloe Vera are good for skin, Amla are good for stomach. By volunteering, or simply sending us feedback on the site. Objectives: Introduce the science of Lewis and Clark’s work in North Dakota. While chives are quite attractive in bloom, flowering can cause the foliage to develop an off-flavor. NIH Special Volunteer Natural Products Branch Developmental Therapeutics Program Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis NCI-Frederick Fairview Center, Suite 206 P. You can use these herbal PPT in Your Projects and presentations. View Notes - Medicinal Plants (II) from BSCI 105 at University of Maryland, College Park. This medicinal herb has a long history as part of the Ayervedic tradition, according to Drugs. Calendula is one of the most familiar and beloved herbs, earning our affection with its cheerful golden flowers. Lemon balm plants tend to be pass-along plants that a gardener ends up with from plant swaps or as gifts from other gardeners. Nowadays we have become increasingly sceptical towards the cosmetic products we use and the chemicals we expose ourselves to. The warming and aromatic "seeds" of the caraway plant are used to give a distinctive flavor to rye bread, cabbage, soups, pickles, teas, liqueurs, and spirits. Reference Publications, Inc. About 1500 plants with medicinal uses are mentioned in ancient texts and around 800 plants have been used in traditional medicine. Appearance is very similar to cassava(non root producing) and the fruit is like that of Jathropa. In most cases the climbing plants were more diverse (had more species) than their non–climbing sister groups. For amendments to be effective, the displaced sodium must be leached out of the plant rooting zone. Black Cohosh is an endangered herb plant. cerviana and S. Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary With PicturesofCrudeHerbs 123. Introduction. Raal et al. Use of plants for medicinal and other purposes; poisonous plants, cross-cultural aspects, chemistry and biological significance of natural products, and natural products from higher plants in modern medicine are discussed. Plant your medicinal plants in different locations, depending on the amount of sunlight, shade and water they need. The fresh leaves of Tulsi are taken by. The Earth is home to more than 298000 species of plants. and Hahn, H. The official definition of pH is: a unit of measure that describes the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a liquid solution. Pete's PowerPoint Station is your destination for free PowerPoint presentations for kids and teachers about All Kinds of Plants, and so much more. The main components of greenhouse like structure, covering/glazing and temperature control systems need proper design for healthy growth of plants. This is an alphabetical list of plants used in herbalism. As of 2017, about 46 percent of the global herbal medicine market was attributed to Western herbalism. Plants Toxic to Dogs. HERBAL MANUAL The Medicinal, Toilet, Culinary and other Uses of 130 of the most Commonly Used Herbs By HAROLD WARD L. The 10 Herbal Plant approved by the Department of Health-DOH 1. Trees in Kerala. Even though herbal medicines produced from plants can be used as an anti-diabetic remedy alone, yet they can also be used alongside with other synthetic drugs such as insulin. It is now grown world-wide for its is aromatic edible leaves which may be used fresh or dried in soups, salads and a wide variety of other food dishes (e. The result is many valuable medicinal herbs are becoming rare and precious information is lost. •Traditional medicine, ethnobotany and western herbal medicine •Herbal therapeutics, phytomedicine and herbal preparations •Medicinal plants in healthcare, clinical trials and pilot studies •Biological and pharmacological effects of plant extracts •Medicinal plants and their anti-inflammatory, anti-cholesterol, hypotensive,. This web site of Encyclopedia provides good quality pictures of medicinal plants and its information,uses,dose,cultivation,research works,side effects. Today, there are over 100 active ingredients derived from plants for use as drugs and medicines. Rahul Deo Yadav 1 *, Shashi Alok 1 *, S. Top 10 Medicinal Plants and Herbs Presentation Transcript: 1. Ancient archaeological records of medicinal plants 3500 BCE - India had an extensive pharmacopoeia. Pete's PowerPoint Station is your destination for free PowerPoint presentations for kids and teachers about All Kinds of Plants, and so much more. Monograph of the University of New Mexico and the School of American Research. Arthritis: Henna oil is used for rheumatic and arthritic pains. Title: Aromatic Phytochemistry Author: zempage Created Date: 6/28/2016 7:47:16 PM. EXOTIC DRINKS RC This drink is a macerated of chuchuhuasi, uña de gato (cat´s claw), chayahuasca, cabobolo and abuta roots; These roots are macerated in aguardiente (alcohol) during 8 days, after this process it is strain and is added honey that’s. Herbs, sometimes woody or herbaceous climbers or low shrubs. These animal-friendly enzymes are much more stable under low pH conditions, such as inside the stomach, and temperature changes don't seem to affect them as much. (Jan 31, 2012) PlantGDB will be represented at the 54th Annual Maize Genetics Conference, March 15-18, 2012, in Portland, Oregon USA. Applied to the skin as gels, lotions, or creams. Phytotherapy is based on the use of herbal drugs and medicinal products for the purpose of prevention and treatment. Herbal medicinal products are defined as any medicinal product, exclusively containing one or more active substances. Herbal medicine is an ancient medical system that has provided the world's population with safe, effective and affordable medicines for at least some 60,000 years and even today the populations of developing countries worldwide continue to rely heavily on plant medicines for their healthcare needs. Or, you can apply a liquid fertilizer, such as Miracle-Gro® LiquaFeed® Tomato, Fruits & Vegetables Plant Food, at the same time you water your plants. Medicinal Plants Cultivation Detailed Project Report, Project Reports, Feasibility Study Report and Business Plan Include the Medicinal Plants property, Standards and Specifications Requirement for Medicinal Plants according to the buyers, Sellers and Country Specific, Medicinal Plants Use and Application area in the Industry. While echinacea was used centuries ago by the Native Americans, today many people take this herb to help fight off colds. Some of these may be pharmacologically active. The TOC is as follows• Fives posters for the plant types mentioned aboveWorksheets for• Climbers & Creepers - True of False• Climbers & Creepers -. Editorial Panel. Even though herbal medicines produced from plants can be used as an anti-diabetic remedy alone, yet they can also be used alongside with other synthetic drugs such as insulin. plant of sri lanka , PLANT OF INDIA, HERBAL PLANT OF INDIA, INDIAN HERBAL PLANT, AYURVEDA HERBAL PLANT , ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ ආයූර්වේද ශාක , Medicinal plant of sri lanka , Ath beheth , pala warga, beheth. Harvest herbs grown for seeds as the seed pods. They have a sedative and relaxing effect on the heart and muscles. “Seaweed and Soy: Companion Foods in Asian Cuisine and Their Effects on Thyroid Function in American Women”. Humans have used them throughout history to either cure or lessen symptoms from an illness. Lab demonstrations will be held in the New Use. Little Book of Herbs. Rajesh Kannan Abstract Endophytes are microorganisms that live inside the host plant tissues which have novel metabolites. come from substances that are found only in plants. Berglund, Berndt and Clare E. Phone: 301-846-5387; fax: 301-846-6178 e-mail: craggg. It is estimated that about 35,000 to 70,000 plants species are used as medicinal plants out of 422127 reported worldwide plant species (Bibi et al. Dzoyem, Victor Kuete, in Medicinal Plant Research in Africa, 2013. Herb definition, a flowering plant whose stem above ground does not become woody. Drying is the simplest methods of processing (primary processing), making it possible to store crude drugs. The plant is relatively fast growing and prefers altitudes of 8,000 ft. 11 MB, 345 views) This discussion thread is closed. 7X, with Product Innovations in Europe and US. The Herbal Database is dedicated to the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, the source of commercial tea. What are medicinal plants good for? Are plants really so important to Man? Plants are extremely useful for us. Marijuana refers to the dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica plant. Proper timing depends on the plant part you are harvesting and the intended use. If it is a large area (greater than 500 square feet), consider using seed to establish plants, which will flower in 3 to 5 years. 1)herbs are any plants "with leaves, seeds, or flowers used for flavoring, food, medicine, or perfume" or parts of "such a plant as used in cooking". Waxes embedded in the cuticle of the plant are cuticular waxes. You can download the desired size. The edible wild: a complete cookbook and guide to edible wild plants in Canada and North America. The whole plant is used in the treatment of excessive pelegra or "kuruba", native name of the disease. The organic molecules found in these plants may be used as models for synthetic drugs. You will find Flower Pictures, Cactus, Vegetables, Fruit, Trees, Leaves, Ferns and more. Herbs contain numerous phytochemicals. any medicinal plants • Maintain personal cleanliness and hygiene while handling medicinal plants, e. Acacinin-A com­ prised acacic acid and carbohydrates moiety consisting of glucose, xylose, fru ctose. (2013) reported that in Estonia, chamomile flowers were frequently used as a self-medication to treat cold and flu. The juice of the medicinal plant can be applied to the skin for headaches, and the henna oil is applied to hair to prevent it from graying. • Over one and a half million practitioners of the ISM in the oral and codified streams use medicinal plants in. This package on 'Plant Types' designed for Grade 2 kids, deals with understanding the plant types climbers, creepers , herbs, shrubs and trees. PlantGDB at Maize Genetics Conf. More than 80 percent of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) are collected from 17 million hectares of Indian forest land. It blooms anywhere between March and June and is a long-term re-vegetative species. The Journal of Herbal Medicine is a peer reviewed journal which aims to serve its readers as an authoritative resource on the profession and practice of herbal medicine. Also, avoid herbs that don’t plant well with others -- for example, basil needs plenty of breathing room. As a result, the herbal industry has flourished and now cities are filled with tea boutiques or herbal supplements for beauty or health. More than 80 percent of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) are collected from 17 million hectares of Indian forest land. Download Biology Lab free editable powerpoint template now as you can use this Biology Lab free ppt template freely as sample. Camellia sinensis is the plant which white tea, green tea, oolong and black tea are all harvested from. PharmacopiaBotanica. Grade Level. TTPB24 Medicinal Plants PPT. We provide the following services to NGO’S: 1) Project reports (SAMPLE AND DPR)– 2) Consultancy Services - 3) Database - 4) Liasioning – 5) Registration- 6) service charges- We provide total service to N. Herbal drugs are plant extracts used as preventive and curative medicine. 1 Introduction The history of the extraction of natural products dates back to Mesopotamian and Egyptian times, where production of perfumes or pharmaceutically - active oils and waxes was a major business. 5%) have been. Increasing role of the WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants Over the past two decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of herbal medicine; however, there is still a significant lack of research data in this field. Discover the medicinal properties of Scotland's most iconic plants. Other methods. India is richly endowed with a wide range of plant species. Warning: Unexpected character in input: '\' (ASCII=92) state=1 in /home1/grupojna/public_html/315bg/c82. Dzoyem, Victor Kuete, in Medicinal Plant Research in Africa, 2013. 75 Safe and Effective Herbal Remedies Used correctly, herbal remedies can be a safer, less expensive alternative to pharmaceuticals. Macrophytes are primary producers and are the basis of th. Download Plant PPT theme with beautiful flowers and crop related green slide designs. Luckily I have been his student during my days at Dr YS Parmar UHF Nauni, Solan. Countless cultures over centuries have known about the medicinal uses of ginger. Damaged plants or parts plants need to be excluded. The plant nutraceuticals Colouring and flavouring agents Miscellaneous products Part 6: Plants in complementary and traditional systems of medicine Introduction Herbal medicine in Britain and Europe: regulation and practice Asian medicine Chinese herbs in the West Plants in African traditional medicine - some perspectives. 23 Powerful Herbs for Treating Dementia Several herbs have been proven effective for slowing down the degeneration of the brain cells caused as a result of dementia. The oldest known list of medicinal herbs is Shen Nung’s Pen Ts’ao or Shennong Ben Cao Jing (c. Free + Easy to edit + Professional + Lots backgrounds. The therapeutic potential of plants has been well explored over a very long time period. All About Plants Games. The value of medicinal plants, herbs and spices as herbal remedies is being lost due to lack of awareness, and deforestation. There are three separate listing of medicinal plants: a Tagalog list, an English list for those plants with English designations, and a Chinese list, for the medicinal plants with Chinese names. The number of medicinal and aromatic plant species used in some regions are. Nutraceuticals (Health Food). This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Therefore since 1999, WHO has published three vol-. Early documentation suggests medicinal plants were used in early China. Why companies like HUL, Patanjali, Dabur are taking a crack at the market for ayurvedic and herbal products Companies are queueing up to take advantage of the rapid evolution in naturals and ayurveda, which have been a sidelight for decades. The leaves, twigs, berries and blossoms of the neem tree can be used in making antiseptic toothpastes. ), PgCert Therapeutics, PgDip Clinical Pharmacy Definition and Description For centuries before the beggining of scientific medicine, traditional medicine of various cultures around the world employed the use of medicinal plants as disease remedies. You can download the desired size. Alojipan November 19, 2015 at 10:15 pm. Medicinal plants; 06 August 2015 A short history of plants as medicine Plants have been used as medicines for thousands of years. We provide the following services to NGO’S: 1) Project reports (SAMPLE AND DPR)– 2) Consultancy Services - 3) Database - 4) Liasioning – 5) Registration- 6) service charges- We provide total service to N. The board is working under Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha & Homeopathy. Eat healthy and stay healthyEat healthy and stay healthy05/19/16 1 2. The plant is the source of the drug Vasaka, particularly in the treatment of Bronchitis. STARTING AN HERB BUSINESS. HERBAL PLANTS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF UROLITHIASIS: A REVIEW. Commercial exploitation has also sometimes led to traditional medicines becoming. So you must sow its seeds and keep watering it. About 3,500 species of both higher and lower plant groups are of medicinal values. Whole Plant: Rs 12 - 20: Fever, weekness, release of gas. Herbal medicines are made from plants. Useful Links. This manual lists equipment and describes techniques and procedures for collecting, preserving, processing, and storing plant specimens. A deciduous tree, found in deciduous forests of the country upto 1350 m. Lemon balm plants tend to be pass-along plants that a gardener ends up with from plant swaps or as gifts from other gardeners. Identified as gray soft, mushy spots on leaves, stems, flowers and produce. Herbal plants ppt 1. This Pollinating plants by hands powerpoint Presentation consist satisfactory background and themes are easily to share over the web. , the statins Traditionally natural products are plant products, e. Free PowerPoint Templates Choose the PPT/PPTX and upload it to your Google Drive Folder. 1000 gm N, 500 gm P 2 O 2 and 750 gm K 2O per plant/year. Some common medicinal and poisonous plants used in Ethiopian folk medicine. Plant the taller-growing varieties in the center and the shorter plants around the edges. Fiber Yielding 3. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Known hazards of Salix babylonica: None known Plant information taken from the Plants For A Future. Plants synthesise hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defence against insects, fungi, diseases, and herbivorous mammals. In addition, you can also use it in food. Banarasi, Chakaiya, Francis, Kanchan, Krishna, Balwant, NA-6, NA-7, NA-9, Anand-2 and BS-1. (2013) reported the increasing use of chamomile in homeopathy in Pakistan. Acacinin-A com­ prised acacic acid and carbohydrates moiety consisting of glucose, xylose, fru ctose. Tables 1, 2 and 3 provide sug-gestions for specific plants. In fact, demand for wild resources has been rise up by 8%-15% per year in Europe, North America, and Asia in recent decades (Bentley, 2010, Ross, 2005). plz like and subscribe!!!!. HERBAL PLANTS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF UROLITHIASIS: A REVIEW. JARMAP aims to improve production of tailor made commodities by addressing the various requirements of manufacturers of herbal medicines, herbal teas, seasoning herbs, food and feed supplements and cosmetics. ), PgCert Therapeutics, PgDip Clinical Pharmacy Definition and Description For centuries before the beggining of scientific medicine, traditional medicine of various cultures around the world employed the use of medicinal plants as disease remedies. TULSI • Blood purifier • Preventive against malaria & dengue fever • Chewing tulsi leaves relieves cold & flu • Chewing 12 leaves of 2. JARMAP is a peer reviewed and multidisciplinary communication platform, covering all aspects of the raw material supply chain of medicinal and aromatic plants. Do not harvest Black Cohosh plants or roots from the wild. 23 Powerful Herbs for Treating Dementia Several herbs have been proven effective for slowing down the degeneration of the brain cells caused as a result of dementia. Herbs are smaller than shrubs. Arthritis: Henna oil is used for rheumatic and arthritic pains. ’s like information providing, projects follow up, project reports preparing etc. Calendula Plants Calendula officinalis This hardy medicinal herb is in the same family as the chrysanthemum and sports daisy-like flowers that are packed with vitamins and potent medicinal benefits. A listing of herbs, spices, and medicinal plants & some clues to their uses. She is rich with fungicidal, germicidal, anti-bacterial & anti-biotic properties. This electronic database of plants used in Ayurveda medicine is the first of its kind, a pioneering effort. Grow robust blueberry, strawberry, raspberry and blackberry plants with high-quality fruit and berry seeds available from Burpee today. Herbal medicines: Present status, future prospects: Dr Abdul Ghani Thursday, October 17, 2013, 08:00 Hrs [IST] Treatment of illness and maintenance of health using herbal medicines is the oldest and most popular form of Healthcare practice known to humanity that has been practised by all cultures in all ages throughout the history of civilization. Some common medicinal and poisonous plants used in Ethiopian folk medicine. Barberyn Ayurveda Resorts and University of Ruhuna, Department of Botany, have implemented this project to catalogue the indigenous Ayurvedic medicinal plants in Sri Lanka. About 3,500 species of both higher and lower plant groups are of medicinal values. One of his books: De Causis Plantarum. Medicinal Plants Database of Bangladesh includes the authentic Taxonomic Information, Vernacular/ Bangla Name, Tribal and English Name, Family, Description and Photograph of the Plants, Chemical Constituents, Uses and Distribution of the species in Bangladesh. JARMAP aims to improve production of tailor made commodities by addressing the various requirements of manufacturers of herbal medicines, herbal teas, seasoning herbs, food and feed supplements and cosmetics. Garden scissors; A basket to carry your herbal bounty in; 2. This theme is perfect for presentation on leaf, organic, homeopathy, etc. by George Wooten, ©1998-2008. A book about herbs is extra helpful to reference the benefits of any plants you find. PRODUCTION/SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION A. Introduction and Importance of Medicinal Plants and Herbs. Medicinal Genomics uses its unmatched expertise in cannabis genetics to develop testing technologies that help growers, dispensaries, and testing laboratories ensure patients and consumers have access to safe, quality cannabis. BABILONIA PAREDES ALAN CHRISTIAN LÓPEZ PEREA JHEAM CARLOS ZAMBRANO ARÉVALO PATSY. Carum carvi L. aureus [1]. ), a Chinese herbal that is probably a compilation of an even older oral tradition. The snakeroot plant has traditionally been a tonic in the east to calm patients; it is now used in orthodox medical practice to reduce blood pressure. The use of plants as abortifacient and it is practiced by older time physicians in India. For the purposes of this guidance document, herbal powders (herbal materials that are dried and ground to powders) are also included in this definition. Temperature is the major factor influencing the cultivation of the medicinal plant. coli and S. Vertical gardening, a boon for the land-challenged, is on the rise. Many plants produce special substances in their roots, leaves, flowers, or seeds that help them to survive. Herbs are no different. Introduction. Our advanced technology plant mainly designed for various Herbal Extracts from parts of plant or tree such as leaves, flowers, seeds, barks, roots and shrubs. There are different varieties of plants and are mainly classified based on certain features including growth habit, presence or absence of specialized tissues. Top 10 Medicinal Plants and Herbs Presentation Transcript: 1. Dedication. World Health Organisation, Regional office for the Western Pacific, Manila, Philippines. Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Tulsi is a. There are quite a number of other methods of climbing. Common Names: Bitterwort, blow-ball, cankerwort, clockflower, Irish daisy, lion’s tooth, piss-in-bed, pissinlit, priest’s crown, puffball, swine’s snout, telltime, yellow gowan. Have kids conduct plant-based science experiments during a classroom unit on nature or as a follow-up to a visit to a local park or garden. Garden scissors; A basket to carry your herbal bounty in; 2. Other Common Names: Mecha, gyokura, bancha, kukicha, Asian tea, senchu, Chinese tea, Japanese tea. Habitat: China, Tibet, India, Assam, Cambodia and Japan. Camellia sinensis is the plant which white tea, green tea, oolong and black tea are all harvested from. This power point presentation pollinating plants by hands also gives a review about plant. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Herbs are smaller than shrubs. Dandelion is a weed belonging to the daisy family and is easily available in most parts of the world. Added to bath water. The Plant List — all families The Plant List contains a working list of plants of the world. Structures of waxes vary depending on which plant produced them. Plant Part: Seed. In this session let us discuss some of List of Medicinal Plants and their uses. Traditionally, chamomile flowers have been handpicked and used. Plant Parts. Herbal remedies vary greatly in efficacy, strength and price. Herbs used in herbal medicine have many different parts, just like the plants they come from! They may have useful flowers, leaves, stems, roots, berries, seeds and even bark. In the classrooms, several teachers showed gorgeous PowerPoint presentations, especially gardener Helen Metzman’s class on Gardening with Native Medicinal Plants. PLEASE NOTE: the final deadline for ALL competition submissions is March 2, 2020. ngosamachar. Standardization of herbal medicines is the process of prescribing a set of standards or inherent characteristics, constant parameters, definitive qualitative and quantitative values that carry an assurance of quality, efficacy, safety and reproducibility. Gather dust from various male blooms for every female blossom on the plant. Field excursions with traditional healers and herbal medicine collectors were carried out. Plant PPT background is a motivational slide design to join hands with others on the internet to take care of greenery. MEDICINAL CROPS The medicinal herbs in Indian curry have been known for their anti-inflammatory powers for centuries. The Plant List — all families The Plant List contains a working list of plants of the world. Chamomile is a popular variety of tea, but the chamomile plant is also used in a number of herbal remedies. • Their use ranges the production of mainstream pharmaceutical products to herbal medicine preparations. project on medicinal plants. One thought on " List of Medicinal Plants in the Philippines " Nick V. Box B Frederick, MD 21702-1201, U. A Brief History of Herbalism The use of plants for medicinal purposes. Camellia sinensis is the plant which white tea, green tea, oolong and black tea are all harvested from. Some common medicinal and poisonous plants used in Ethiopian folk medicine. Many of these plant possess tremendous medicinal values and being used extensively for such purposes. Brewed as tea. These types of medicinal plants such as yam can be eaten to cure tonic effects in spleen and stomach. By volunteering, or simply sending us feedback on the site. Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world's population. Keywords: Herbal cosmetics, Ayurvedic medicine, Essential oils, Synthetic chemicals. Fowler & Co. xiv A Guide to Medicinal Plants FA Although medicinal plants are generally safe when used appropriately according to the traditional methods, some are inherently toxic. Damaged plants or parts plants need to be excluded. Although identification is a separate activity or process, in practice it involves both classification and nomenclature. Herbs grown for their foliage should be harvested before they flower. Whole Plant: Rs 12 - 20: Fever, weekness, release of gas. Books on plants and gardening written by Theophrastus. These animals and plants can be classified into many categories and humans are one of these. Browse a wide selection of fruit & berry seeds and plants for your home garden at Burpee. Herbal: 129 folios (130 Plants) Eryngiumheterophyllum. Ayurveda shaka, herbal education. Probably, the single most important ‘role’ for medicinal plants in biological and. #gardening #beginners #healing #medicinal #herb #howtogrow #ideas #healingharvesthomestead #herbalism Gardening , Herbs & Essential Oils Heidi Villegas February 11, 2020 medicinal herbs , herbal garden , best herbs to plant , medicine garden. Each medicinal plant species is provided with its scientific name, local name, chromosome number , plant parts (such as leaf, root, stem, fruit, latex, whole plant, seed, inflorescence and bark) mostly used and uses. Look for stevia plants in the herbs section at garden centers, or locate mail-order suppliers using our Seed and Plant Finder. Each part of the plant can have a different medicinal use. Pour a cup of boiling water over a small handful of fresh leaves (or 1 to 2. Medicinal Plants: Past, Present and Future Teaching Tool Components Files in this Data Supplement: Slide Handout Lecture Notes Teaching Guide PowerPoint Slide Presentation 24-Slide Overview. Medicinal Benefits of Henna oil / seeds. The herbs mostly help in seasoning food and in medicine. Herbs are a subset of spices, generally derived from fresh or dried leaves, but in this guide no distinction is made between spices and herbs, in keeping with the International Standards Organization (ISO) definition. Paths between the beds are often paved with stone or brick, adding even more four-season structure to the. Treatment using herbs developed different parts of world in different names. The demand for plant-based medicines is growing as they are generally considered to be safer, non-toxic and less harmful than synthetic drugs. Choose a well-drained site, and set out the plants 2 feet apart after. It comes for genus Cassia but the same species also grouped in the genus of genus Senna with scientific name Senna alata but they are actually the same flowering plant. About 2,000 native plant species have curative properties and 1,300 species are known for their aroma and flavour. They belong to 1,537 genera in 221 families. Special Issues. National Plant Board The National Plant Board is a non-profit organization of the plant pest regulatory agencies of each of the states, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Guam. The leaves, twigs, berries and blossoms of the neem tree can be used in making antiseptic toothpastes. Medicinal Plants. Diabetes is a. This is a wetland plant that grows in “prairie potholes”, indents left by glaciers in the recent ice age, 20,000 years ago. PLANT IDENTIFICATION. Here, we detail a few of our favorite ways to get started on your own DIY vertical garden, including tips on planting, watering, hanging, and decorating. Products added to herbal preparations may also cause interactions. Vanisree et al. Herbal supplements come in all forms: dried, chopped, powdered, capsule, or liquid, and can be used in various ways, including: Swallowed as pills, powders, or tinctures. Other Common Names: Mecha, gyokura, bancha, kukicha, Asian tea, senchu, Chinese tea, Japanese tea. Meyer, reputed as the king of medicinal herbs, has slow growth, long generation time, low seed production and complicated genome structure that hamper its study. Written records about medicinal plants date back at least 5000 years to the Sumerians and ancient records are suggested earlier use of medicinal plants. • Arta: This plant deserves respect because it’s used to slow wind around precious desert plantations. ngosamachar. Books on plants and gardening written by Theophrastus. There are also several methods for growing healthy, productive plants. Exceptions This is a large group with species that vary widely in characteristics; some narrow-leaved species have only one leaf blade vein, so floral characteristics are important. The name Ashwagandha is composed of two Sanskrit words: Ashwa means ‘horse,’ Gandha means ‘smell’ because of the strong aroma of the root described as Horse-like. You can see how Ayurveda maintains health. Use of plants for medicinal and other purposes; poisonous plants, cross-cultural aspects, chemistry and biological significance of natural products, and natural products from higher plants in modern medicine are discussed. The natural world, such as the function of plants and the way they grow, is a source of wonder for many children and will be something they continue to study throughout their education. Indian medicinal plants or Ayurvedic medicinal Plants are the essence of traditional medicine like Ayurveda. Tree Photographs taken at Russell Cave National Monument Bridgeport, Alabama. Download Free herbal PowerPoint Templates and Themes. all plants growing in a particular region). Black Cohosh is an endangered herb plant. For the purposes of this guidance document, herbal powders (herbal materials that are dried and ground to powders) are also included in this definition. This power point presentation pollinating plants by hands also gives a review about plant. Most chemists work with a team of scientists from different disciplines, including biologists, toxicologists, pharmacologists, theoretical chemists. Herbs are any phytogenic (derived from plants) substances used in food, cosmetics, cooking, and medicine. There are over 1. ppt Author: swalker Created Date: 6/28/2010 2:22:43 PM. com's free Herbal Capsules Medical PowerPoint Template now for your upcoming medical PowerPoint presentations. This study has given an overview of importance of different medicinal plants and natural remedies and also clears that immunomodulation using medicinal plants can provide an alternative to conventional chemotherapy for a variety of diseases, especially when host defense mechanism has to be impaired under the conditions of impaired immune responses when a selective immunosuppression. The TOC is. Phone: 301-846-5387; fax: 301-846-6178 e-mail: craggg. Also we develop Butterfly garden & Organic Vegetable in our Organic Farm. Scientists, teachers, writers, illustrators, and. Modified ring, patch and shield budding as well as soft wood grafting. The growing datura plant acts like as insect repellent thereby protects other plants from insects. While not as popular as other herbs, lemon balm is nevertheless a wonderful herb to have in your garden. We advocate a herb for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Salvia miltiorrhiza, as a prime model system to study how microbes may interact with medicinal plants to modify phytochemical production. I think, people will enjoy seeing here. This article reviews potential anti-dengue activities from plants distributed around the world. All other flowering non-woody plants. These types of medicinal plants such as yam can be eaten to cure tonic effects in spleen and stomach. Other Common Names: Mecha, gyokura, bancha, kukicha, Asian tea, senchu, Chinese tea, Japanese tea. Food Producing 2. Including a cereal crop in the rotation is also useful. Found on potato and tomato leaves as pale green spots, often beginning at leaf tips or edges. Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants / Herbs mainly using in Ayurveda with pictures and details. Even though herbal medicines produced from plants can be used as an anti-diabetic remedy alone, yet they can also be used alongside with other synthetic drugs such as insulin. This chapter presents a glimpse of the current status of and future trends in medicinal plant genomics, evolution, and phylogeny. Avoid picking leaves, fruits or nuts during and after heavy rainfall. Pictures of Medicinal Plants ( Contacts ) Please Choose Subject and CLICK on Pictures to Enlarge:. Panax ginseng C. Applied to the skin as gels, lotions, or creams. 11 MB, 345 views) This discussion thread is closed. If you want to add medicinal plants to your garden but do not want to. screening based on phytochemical tests of six medicinal plants viz. Ethnobotany is the study of how people of a particular culture and region make use of indigenous (native) plants. Cultivating in the UK does not require a licence but extracting the oil does. Herbs used in herbal medicine have many different parts, just like the plants they come from! They may have useful flowers, leaves, stems, roots, berries, seeds and even bark. WHO report 80% of the world population relies on the drug from natural origin. “Herbalism, the therapeutic use of herbs, is the original system of medicine from which modern pharmacological products have been developed” (Mantle, 2001). In addition, you can also use it in food. The therapeutic part of the plant may be any part of the plant i. The content areas of the journal reflect the interests of Medical Herbalists and other health professionals interested in the. The pulp of leaves is given in fever, enlargement of liver, spleen, skin. Bharti 1 and M. This is a page of links for students to learn more about plants. Structures of Aromatic & Medicinal Plants. The edible wild: a complete cookbook and guide to edible wild plants in Canada and North America. “Seaweed and Soy: Companion Foods in Asian Cuisine and Their Effects on Thyroid Function in American Women”. 10 MEDICINAL PLANTS OF PAKISTAN A LITERATURE STUDY THESIS IN PHARMACOGNOSY BY, MOHAMMAD AWAIS INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY THE FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCES THE UNIVERSITY OF OSLO INSTRUCTOR Professor Ph. The result is many valuable medicinal herbs are becoming rare and precious information is lost. Medicinal systems around the world, which had been developed thousands of years ago, heavily relied on herbal medicine; a good record of plants used is available for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kampo medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, European medicine, and traditional medicines of Africa, Australia and Americas [5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17]. Its small flowers and odd berries make it an unassuming plant; however, when ground with its roots and stems or added to other natural remedies, goldenseal is prescribed for wounds, inflammation, gastric problems, respiratory sickness and even liver. Rosemary leaves are the most important part of the plant for medicinal effect. The number of medicinal and aromatic plant species used in some regions are. Kutchan Laboratorium für Molekulare Biologie, Universitat München, Karlstrasse 29, 80333 Munich, Germany INTRODUCTION Alkaloids-the term is linguistically derived from the Arabic word a/-qali, the plant from which soda was first obtained-. Many critical diseases can be totally cure using various plants, flowers & their roots. The natural world, such as the function of plants and the way they grow, is a source of wonder for many children and will be something they continue to study throughout their education. Although identification is a separate activity or process, in practice it involves both classification and nomenclature. There are three separate listing of medicinal plants: a Tagalog list, an English list for those plants with English designations, and a Chinese list, for the medicinal plants with Chinese names. Herbs have been used as man's medicine and food for thousands of years. This is a page of links for students to learn more about plants. PRODUCTION According to the study carried out by Kuipers for FAO, there are two sources of supply of medicinal plants: i) material collected from the wild; and ii) cultivated material3. Pictures of Medicinal Plants ( Contacts ) Please Choose Subject and CLICK on Pictures to Enlarge:. In addition, it helps in treating lungs and kidneys. PLEASE NOTE: the final deadline for ALL competition submissions is March 2, 2020. ) It is one of the ten herbal medicines endorsed by the Philippine Department of Health as an effective herbal medicine with proven therapeutic value. The whole plant is used in the treatment of excessive pelegra or "kuruba", native name of the disease. Botanical Name: Costus Igneus Family: Costaceae. medicinal plants. They apply to the cultivation and collection of medicinal plants, including certain post-harvest operations. Snake and Scorpio bites. Medicinal plants; 06 August 2015 A short history of plants as medicine Plants have been used as medicines for thousands of years. Pros and Cons of Cattail The rhizomes and lower leaf portions of cattails are consumed by nutria, muskrats, and geese. (1999), Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of essential oils of Artemisia afra, Pteronia incana and Rosmarinus officinalis on selected bacteria and yeast strains. The list will always be incomplete, given the vast number of herbs. Field production. Additionally, this course provides a critical analysis of health effects and therapeutic claims of plant-derived physiologically-active products. Brewed as tea. The stem, fruit, flower of the Banana plant make wholesome food and have many medicinal. With Fresh Herbs: Gather plant material after morning dew has dried. When making tinctures you can use fresh or dried herb. Seventy percent of plants with anticancer properties exist only in the Amazon, and this is one of them! Currently, this incredible medicinal plant is used to treat cancer, alleviate pain from chemotherapy, and fight infections. Although many herbs and plants used medicinally in South Africa today were imported from Europe, there is a vast array of indigenous medicinal plants here too. (1998) Medicinal plants in the South Pacific. In Pakistan 80% of the population belonging to the rural areas depends on the traditional medicines (Munir et al. Leaves are ovate to oblong-ovate, 6 to 14 centimeters long, somewhat entire, with alternate heart-shaped or palmately lobed leaves, pointed at the tip, and heart-shaped at the base. Caraway is said to have been used in Europe longer than any other condiment. Dengue fever causes mortality and morbidity around the world, specifically in the Tropics and subtropic regions, which has been of major concern to governments and the World Health Organization (WHO). Medicinal plants have evolved over the centuries as essential parts of African civilization and are widely recognized today as representing its rich cultural and scientific heritage.
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